The Second Creation : Dolly and the Age of Biological Control ,
by Ian Wilmut , Keith Campbell , Colin Tudge .

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The Second Creation : Dolly and the Age of Biological Control , by Ian Wilmut , Keith Campbell , and Colin Tudge .

Published by Farrar, Straus and Giroux. First edition, June 2000; hardcover, 320 pages. Includes a 10-page 187-term glossary and a 9-page 2-column index. Insert of illustrations includes 16 black-and-white photos of Dolly and her creators, and a sketch called the "diagram of the nuclear transfer process that produced Dolly."
The story of Dolly the cloned sheep in the book The Second Creation : Dolly and the Age of Biological Control , by Ian Wilmut , Keith Campbell and Colin Tudge .

            In 1996, a sheep named Dolly was created by cloning at Roslin Institute, a British government laboratory operated by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC). The genetic material came from a body cell (not a fertilized egg) provided by another laboratory, Pharmaceutical Proteins, Ltd. (PPL), not affiliated with Roslin.

            The researchers removed the nucleus of Dolly's mother's egg, leaving an enucleated cell (a cytoplast, i.e., a cell without a nucleus). They also removed the donor nucleus (kartoplast) from the body cell which had been sent to them by PPL. They inserted the donor nucleus into the enucleated cell. After a normal gestation period, Dolly was born.

            Dolly was observed to be a Finn-Dorset lamb, which has a white face, although her mother was a Scottish Blackface sheep. This indicated that her genetic code was that of the white faced strain which had contributed the body cell.

            Dolly wasn't the first mammal ever to be cloned, nor even the first cloned sheep. In 1995 Wilmut and Campbell had successfuly produced two sheep named Megan and Morag by nuclear transfer, but the donor nuclei had been removed from fertilized eggs. Dolly was the first mammal to be produced by transfer of a nucleus from a body cell (they used a mammary gland cell). Out of 277 reconstructed embryos produced on that occasion, Dolly was the only success.

            The rapid pace of technology which we have observed in electronics and space exploration in the last half of the 20th century has occurred in biotechnology as well.

            In the 1950s, Robert Briggs, a scientist at the Institute of Cancer Research in Philadelphia, took an interest in conducting DNA experiments. He teamed up with Thomas J. King of New York University, and they undertook the first work on cell nucleus transplant in frogs. The tadpoles produced by Briggs and King, in the words of Wilmut and Campbell, "... introduced -- if any single event can be said to have done so -- the modern clone age." [Page 77]

            In the 1960s, researchers learned how to fuse two cells by using a virus, the Sendai Virus, to open their membranes. The membranes then fuse into one membrane, and two cells have become one cell. In the 1970s scientists invented the electrofusion technique, which opens and fuses the membranes with an electrical current, superior to the Sendai Virus method.

            In the 1970s, Ian Wilmut worked on a project a Cambridge that produced Frostie, the first calf born from a frozen embryo. The first success in cytopreservation, that is, freezing cells and then restoring them to life, had occurred in 1953. Today we read news reports of lawsuits and court orders related to frozen human eggs or frozen sperm.

	     Table of Contents

  The Second Creation : Dolly and the Age of
     Biological Control , by Ian Wilmut ,
       Keith Campbell and Colin Tudge

  Preface

  PART I : THE NEW AGE BEGINS

    1.	The Importance of Being Dolly	      3
    2.	Tracy -- The Most Valuable Milk in   22
	the World

  PART II : THE SCIENCE OF CLONING

    3.	So What Exactly is a Clone?	     45
    4.	Embryos and Clones -- Early Days     62
    5.	The Facts of Life Revisited	     82

  PART III : THE PATH TO DOLLY

    6.	Mammals Cloned			    109
    7.	Cloning Comes to Roslin 	    139
    8.	Keith and the Cell Cycle	    159
    9.	Megan and Morag 		    183
    10. Dolly				    208
    11. The Denouement -- Polly 	    231

  PART IV : THE AGE OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

    12. The New Biotechnology		    243
    13. Cloning People			    267

  Epilogue : Moving On			    299
  Appendix : The Letter to 'Nature'
     Anouncing Dolly's Birth                307
  Glossary				    315
  Index 				    325
     

            In the 1970s, artificial insemination (AI), which has already been performed for many years with animals, became a practical option for human couples, one-eighth of whom have such reproductive problems as low sperm counts or blocked fallopian tubes. In 1978, the first person conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) was born in England. The press called Louise Joy Brown a "test tube baby."

            In 1980, German embryologist Karl Illmensee and American embryologist Peter Hoppe produced three cloned mice by nuclear transfer, performing the microsurgery with a pipette. (Illmensee was already famous for his research in the 1960s on the genetics of fruit flies. Genetics researchers often experiment with fruit flies because their life cycle is so short that numeorus generations can be observed in the laboratory.)

            In 1990, genetic engineering (not cloning) produced Tracy, a sheep implanted with a human gene that caused her milk to contain the enzyme AZT. This enzyme is normally found only in human milk. The enzyme is needed in the manufacture of medicine to treat cystic fibrosis in humans. Dolly is another success in this exponential climb of biotechnology. Several children suffering from cystic fibrosis decided to express their approval of biotechnology by visiting Dolly in her nursery, and pose for photos of them petting her (one of these photos is included in the book's insert of illustrations).

            After Dolly, Polly was born in 1997. Polly was the first sheep to be both cloned and genetically transformed.

            What will occur next? Campbell's personal goal is, "I want to be the first to clone a pig." [page 300] Some researchers view Dolly and Polly a stepping stones toward a future production of cloned cattle which will have the genetic makeup permitting optimum use of their diets, resulting in more milk production. Some scientists are hoping to create a woolly mammoth, an extinct species, by using a cell from the frozen body of a woolly mammoth that was found preserved in the permafrost of Siberia, although the animal died 20,000 years ago.

            Many people speculate about the possibility of human cloning. The issue leads to ethical and religious debates and heated arguments. Cloning people is the title and topic of Chapter 13. The wider field of the ethics and social responsibility of scientists is considered. "We want to offer our personal opinions on human cloning, not because we assume any particular moral authority, but in the spirit of throwing pebbles into the pool of discussion." [268] The authors explain that their own opinions as scientists should not carry any more weight than the opinions of other citizens, because this is implicit in the meaning of a democratic society. Therefore, this chapter is a "look at the factual issues." [268]

            If you have an interest in science and technology, you will find this book fascinating. It is, furthermore, the sort of book which will benefit you if you wish to discuss modern biotechnology intelligently.

Books and Book Reviews             You don't have to have a lot of scientific education to understand this book, but you will probably need occasionally to consult the glossary of technical terms in the back of the book. You can simply insert a bookmark at the location of the glossary, and then start reading from the beginning. After a while, the meaning of words like "cytoplast" will have become familiar to you, and you won't need the glossary.

Reviewed by Mike Lepore for crimsonbird.com [ email ]

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The following book review is reprinted with permission from Amazon.com .

            The Second Creation deals with some of the most important issues confronting us today: genetic engineering and cloning, and the control that science has over the process of life. Written by the noted science author Colin Tudge, the book is based on interviews with Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell, the scientists who cloned Dolly the sheep. Its aim is to explain the story of how and why they came to cloning sheep and the implications for the future, from curing diseases to human cloning. But that's not easy to convey simply, according to Ian Wilmut:

The full story is, however, inescapably complicated. The science and technology of cloning, at least by our method, takes us into some of the most esoteric reaches of biology...

            Their subject is complex and requires careful reading, but the reward is worth the effort. Inevitably, the issue of human cloning is looked at in some detail, and all three of the authors find the idea repugnant and do not believe society will accept it:

The pressures for human cloning are powerful; but, although it seems likely that somebody, at some time, will attempt it, we need not assume that it will ever become a common or significant feature of human life.

            The book contains a comprehensive glossary to explain the scientific terms and abbreviations. Colin Tudge is the author of several books including The Engineer in the Garden, short-listed for the British Science Book Award.

-- Carina Trimingham

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The Second Creation
Publisher's book description from the flap

            Human cloning has grabbed people's imagination, but that is merely a diversion -- and one we personally regret and find distasteful. We did not make Dolly for that ... Our work completes the biotechnological trio: genetic engineering, genomics, cloning. It also provides an extraordinarily powerful scientific model for studying the interactions of the genes and their surroundings -- interactions that account for so much of development and disease. Taken together, the new biotechnologies and the pending scientific insights will be immensely powerful. Truly they will take humanity into the age of biological control.

            The cloning of Dolly in 1996 from the cell of an adult sheep was a pivotal moment in history. For the first time, a team of scientists, Led by Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell at the Roslin Institute near Edinburgh, was able to clone a whole mammal using a single cultured adult body cell, a breakthrough that revolutionized three technologies and brought science ever closer to the possibility of human cloning.

            In this definitive account, the scientists who accomplished this stunning feat explain their hypotheses and experiments, their conclusions, and the implications of their work. Researchers have already incorporated into sheep the gene for human factor IX, a blood-clotting protein used to treat hemophilia. In the future, cultures of mammary cells may prove to be valuable donor material, and genetically modified animal organs may be transplanted into humans. Normal pig organs, for example, are rapidly destroyed by the human immune system, but if altered genetically, they could alleviate the serious shortage of available organs. Genetically engineered sheep are also expected to be valuable as models for genetic defects that mimic human disorders such as cystic fibrosis, and for cell-based therapies for diseases -- such as Parkinson's, diabetes, and muscular dystrophy -- that lack universally dependable treatments.

            But what are the ethical issues raised by this pioneering research, and how are we to reconcile them with the enormous possibilities? Written with award-winning science writer Colin Tudge, The Second Creation is a Landmark work that details the most exciting and challenging scientific discovery of the twentieth century -- with the furthest-reaching ramifications for the twenty-first.

IAN WILMUT studied embryology at Nottingham University and received his doctoral degree at Cambridge University before joining the Animal Breeding Research Station, an independent research institution that eventually became the Roslin Institute. He was the Leader of the team that cloned Dolly.
KEITH CAMPBELL studied microbiology at Queen Elizabeth College, London, and obtained a D.Phil. from the University of Sussex. A cell biologist and embryologist now working at the University of Nottingham, he joined the Roslin Institute in 1991 to work on the project that resulted in Dolly.
COLIN TUDGE was educated at Cambridge University, where he majored in zoology. A writer and broadcaster, he is also a Research Fellow at the Centre for Philosophy at the London School of Economics. Tudge is the author of more than a dozen books, including, most recently, The Variety of Life: A Survey and a Celebration of All the Creatures That Have Ever Lived, published by Oxford University Press.
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